Manifesto of Congress 1778

Sam Adam Author[i] of MANIFESTO OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS.

October 30, 1778.

The following Manifesto can be very easily used in our modern time if:

  1. The people had the same sense of Moral conviction and understanding
  2. By virtue of #1, Congress would have the Moral conviction and understanding base on knowledge of God owns the political realm
  3. Recognition of ‘Evil’ and that evil must be dealt with

Now the Manifesto with modern addition in itallics:

The United States having been driven to hostilities by the oppressive and tyrannous measures of Great Britain (Jihadists, cartels and radical globalists), having been compelled to commit the essential rights of men to the decision of arms, and having been at length forced to shake off a yoke which had grown too burdensome to bear, they declared themselves free and independent.

Confiding in the justice of their cause; confiding in Him who disposes of human events; although weak and unprovided, they set the power of their enemies at defiance.

In this confidence they have continued through the various fortunes of three bloody campaigns (continuous war on terror and various forms of border invasion), unawed by the power, unsubdued by the barbarity of their foes. Their virtuous citizens have borne without repining the loss of many things which make life desirable. Their brave troops have patiently endured the hardships and dangers of a situation fruitful in both beyond former example.

The Congress, considering themselves bound to love their enemies as children of that Being who is equally the Father of all, and desirous, since they could not prevent, at least to alleviate the calamities of war, have studied to spare those who were in arms against them, and to lighten the chains of captivity.

The conduct of those serving under the King of Great Britain (Jihadists, cartels and radical globalists), hath, with some few exceptions, been diametrically opposite. They have laid waste the open country, burned the defenceless villages, and butchered the citizens of America.

Their prisons have been the slaughter-houses of her soldiers, their ships of her seamen, and the severest injuries have been aggravated by the grossest insults.

Foiled in their vain attempts to subjugate the unconquerable spirit of freedom, they have meanly assailed the representatives of America with bribes, with deceit, and the servility of adulation. They have made a mock of religion by impious appeals to God, whilst in the violation of His sacred command. They have made a mock even of reason itself, by endeavoring to prove that the liberty and happiness of America could safely be intrusted to those who have sold their own, unawed by the sense of virtue or of shame.

Treated with the contempt which such conduct deserved, they have applied to individuals. They have solicited them to break the bonds of allegiance and imbue their souls with the blackest crimes. But fearing that none could be found through these United States equal to the wickedness of their purpose, to influence weak minds they have threatened more wide devastation.

While the shadow of hope remained that our enemies could be taught by our example to respect those laws which are held sacred among civilized nations, and to comply with the dictates of a religion which they pretend, in common with us (except for the Jihadists who reject our religious beliefs), to believe and revere, they have been left to the influence of that religion (radical islam, humanism and atheism) and that example. But since their incorrigible dispositions cannot be touched by kindness and compassion, it becomes our duty by other means to vindicate the rights of humanity.

We, therefore, the Congress of the United States of America, do solemnly declare and proclaim that if our enemies presume to execute their threats, or persist in their present career of barbarity, we will take such exemplary vengeance as shall deter others from a like conduct. We appeal to the God who searcheth the hearts of men for the rectitude of our intentions; and in his holy presence declare that, as we are not moved by any light or hasty suggestions of anger or revenge, so through every possible change of fortune we will adhere to this our determination.

Done in Congress by unanimous consent, the thirtieth day of October, one thousand seven hundred and seventy-eight.

[i] Also attributed to Adams by Niles, Principles and Acts, pp. 476, 477.

Modern Conclusion and Application from an ARTICLE SIGNED “VINDEX.”

Modern Conclusion and Application from an ARTICLE SIGNED “VINDEX.”[i]

[Boston Gazette, January 21, 1771.]

The beginning of the article regarded the discussion around the events and trial that you moderns have come to know as the Boston Massacre.  My conclusion to that whole discussion is pertinent to your present arguments over Patriotism.  We too were contending for what that meant.  The Tory’s had an uncompromising view that Patriotism was having ones complete faith in the reigning government in England.  The Colonies, having always had their own Charters that allowed for independent local legislatures, viewed Patriotism to the source of Liberty – that being the Foundations set by the leaders of the Reformation and architects of Liberty like Rutherford – which through the continued raising of the peoples awareness, ensured that the Magna Carta was the core of what We called the Constitution.  Our Rights as Citizens being secured in the English Constitution and Common Law was set all the way back to Alfred the Great in the Principles of Deuteronomy as the core guides to good governance.

With the truth that our Liberties and Rights are absolutely from God and that Rutherford’s Lex Rex[ii] clarified good kings and administrations from bad, we knew what usurpation, tyranny and despotism actually mean.  You moderns still have much to understand in respect to those three words.  Now, I will relate how the conclusion of my Article is relevant to you by bringing your situations into the context of the argument, especially regarding Patriotism.  Modern emphasis is in (parens) and/or italics.

I shall conclude what I have to say in this article, upon this interesting subject in my next article. In the mean time let me assure Philanthrop (a King’s man who would be your modern progressive pundits as with “Media Matters, the statist/progressive radical bureaucrats, NEOCONS and career politicians), that I am fully of his mind, that a true patriot “will not from private views, or by any ways or means foment (instigate or incite) and cherish groundless fears and jealousies”: But perhaps we may not be so well agreed in our determination, when the fears and jealousies of our fellow citizens are groundless – It is I believe the general opinion of judicious men, that at present, even in the 21st Century, there are good grounds to apprehend a settled design, most assuredly through the United Nations, to enslave and ruin the colonies (The united States of and in America); and that some men of figure and station, (educators, career politicians, NGO’s and even religious leaders) in America, have adopted the plan[iii], and would gladly lull the people to sleep, the easier to put it in execution: But I believe Philanthrop would be far from acknowledging that he is of that opinion. The fears and jealousies of the people are not always groundless: And when they become general (when the scandals and plans become greater public knowledge), it is not to be presum’d that they are (real); for the people in general seldom complain, without some good reason. The inhabitants of this continent are not to be dup’d “by an artful use of the words liberty and slavery[iv], in an application to their passions,” as Philanthrop would have us think they are; like the miserable Italians, who are cheated with the names ” Excommunication, Bulls, Crusades,” They can distinguish between “realities and sounds (false flags and rumors)“; and by a proper use “of that reason which Heaven has given them “, they can judge, as well as their betters (those who would be thought more informed, educated or intelligent), when there is danger of slavery. They have as high a regard for George the III. (the office of President but not always the man himself) as others have, & yet can suppose it possible they may be made slaves (the policies of the leadership and administration will us law to destroy the Citizens Rights), without “enslaving themselves by their own folly and madness” (Believing that the elected and bureaucrats would have the same understanding of Rights such that they would recognize that what they legislate would ultimately fall on their heads also, thereby making them slaves to the bad legislation as well); They can believe, that men who “are bone of our bone, and flesh of our flesh, born and bred among us,” may, like Achan[v], for a wedge of gold (power and money from political gain or ideology), detach themselves from the common interest, and embark in another bottom; in hopes that they, “with their wives and children” will one day stand and see, and enjoy, and triumph, in the ruins of their country: Such instances there have been frequently in times past; and I dare not say, we have not at present, reason enough for “exclaiming with the roman patriot, 0 tempora, 0 mores[vi]“. The true patriot therefore, will enquire into the causes of the fears and jealousies of his countrymen; and if he finds they are not groundless, he will be far from endeavoring to allay or stifle them: On the contrary, constrain’d by the Amor Patrae (Love for ones Country), and from public views, he will by all proper means in his power foment (stir up) and cherish them: He will, as far as he is able, keep the attention of his fellow citizens awake to their grievances; and not suffer them to be at rest, till the causes of their just complaints are removed.

At such a time Philanthrop’s (The King’s man) Patriot may be “very cautious of charging the want of ability or integrity to those with whom any of the powers of government are entrusted”: But the true patriot, will constantly be jealous of those very men: Knowing that power, especially in times of corruption, makes men wanton ((of a cruel or violent action) deliberate and unprovoked); that it intoxicates the mind; and unless those with whom it is entrusted, are carefully watched, such is the weakness or the perverseness of human nature, they will be apt to domineer over the people, instead of governing them, according to the known laws of the state, to which alone they have submitted. If he finds, upon the best enquiry, the want of ability or integrity; that is, an ignorance of, or a disposition to depart from, the constitution, which is the measure and rule of government & submission, he will point them out, and loudly proclaim them: He will stir up the people, incessantly to complain of such men, till they are either reform’d, or remov’d from that sacred trust (elected office or bureauracracy), which it is dangerous for them any longer to hold.

Philanthrop may tell us of the hazard “of disturbing and inflaming the minds of the multitude whose passions know no bounds”: A traitor to the constitution alone can dread this: The multitude I am speaking of, is the body of the people – no contemptible multitude – for whose sake government is instituted; or rather, who have themselves erected it, solely for their own good – to whom even kings (presidents, judges and congress) and all in subordination to them, are strictly speaking, servants and not masters. “The constitution and its laws are the basis of the public tranquility – the firmest support of the public authority, and the pledge of the liberty of the citizens: But the constitution is a vain Phantom, and the best laws are useless, if they are not religiously observed. The nation ought then to watch, and the true patriot will watch very attentively, in order to render them equally respected, by those who govern, and the people destin’d to obey ” – To violate the laws of the state is a capital crime; and if those guilty of it, are invested with authority, they add to this crime, a perfidious abuse of the power with which they are entrusted: “The nation therefore, the people, ought to suppress those abuses with their utmost care & vigilance” – This is the language of a very celebrated author, whom I dare say, Philanthrop is well acquainted with, and will acknowledge to be an authority.

Philanthrop, I think, speaks somewhat unintelligibly, when he tells us that the well being and happiness of the whole depends upon subordination; as if mankind submitted to government, for the sake of being subordinate: In the state of nature there was subordination: The weaker was by force made to bow down to the more powerful. This is still the unhappy lot of a great part of the world, under government: So among the brutal herd, the strongest horns are the strongest laws. Mankind have entered into political societies, rather for the sake of restoring equality; the want of which, in the state of nature, rendered existence uncomfortable and even dangerous. I am not of leveling (utopian/socialist) principles: But I am apt to think, that constitution of civil government which admits equality in the most extensive degree, consistent with the true design of government, is the best; and I am of this opinion, because I agree with Philanthrop and many others, that man is a social animal. Subordination is necessary to promote the purposes of government; the grand design of which is, that men might enjoy a greater share of the blessings resulting from that social nature, and those rational powers, with which indulgent Heaven has endow’d us, than they could in the state of nature: But there is a degree of subordination, which will for ever be abhorrent to the generous mind; when it is extended to the very borders, if not within the bounds of slavery: A subordination, which is so far from conducing “to the welfare and happiness of the whole”, that it necessarily involves the idea of that worst of all the evils of this life, a tyranny: An abject servility, which instead of “being essential to our existence as a people,” disgraces the human nature, and sinks it to that of the most despicable brute.

I cannot help thinking, that the reader must have observed in Philanthrop’s last performance, that a foundation is there laid for a dangerous superstructure: and that from his principles, might easily be delineated a plan of despotism, which however uncommon it may be, for the laws and constitution of the state to be openly and boldly oppos’d, our enemies have long threatened to establish by violence. If Philanthrop upon retrospection shall think so, he will, like a prudent physician, administer an antidote for the poison: If not, I hope the attention of others will be awakened to that excellent maxim, “no less essential in politicks than in morals”, principiis obsta (Resist the first advances.). It is impolitick to make the first attempt to enslave mankind by force: This strikes the imagination, and is alarming: “Important changes insensibly happen: It is against silent & slow attacks that a nation ought to be particularly on its guard.”

VINDEX.

Jan. 15th.

 


[i] The Writings of Samuel Adams, volume II (1770 – 1773) collected and edited by Harry Alonso Cushing, Pgs. 70 & 71, http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/2092/pg2092.html            4/16/11 11:41 AM

[ii] Lex, Rex

[iv] Algernon Sydney – Thomas Jefferson regarded John Locke and Algernon Sidney as the two leading sources for the American understanding of the principles of political liberty and the rights of humanity.  Sidney (or Sydney, as it was sometimes spelled) was once a popular hero. Like Socrates, he was famous for his controversial doctrines on government and for a nobility of character displayed during a dramatic trial and execution that was widely regarded as judicial murder. Unlike Socrates, Sidney was emphatically a political man and a partisan of republicanism. For a century and more he was celebrated as a martyr to free government, as Socrates is still celebrated as a martyr to the philosophic way of life. Socrates died the defiant inquirer, who knew only that he did not know the most important things. Sidney, in contrast, the defiant republican, kept getting into trouble for his democratic political views and projects.

Sidney fell out of fashion during the nineteenth century. The educated began to favor statesmen like Cromwell and Napoleon, who relished the exercise of unrestrained power for grand projects in the service of mankind. Scholars have recently shown renewed interest in Sidney as an object of research. But in spite of twentieth-century tyrannies more terrible than any Sidney experienced or read about, he still fails to satisfy the taste of most contemporary intellectuals. This new edition of Discourses Concerning Government may provide an occasion for students of political liberty to reassess Sidney’s eclipse.

[v] See Joshua 22:20, Comments by: James Parsons – http://ibiblestudies.com/auth/parsons/achan%27s_sin_and_achan%27s_end.htm

I..THE PERPETRATION OF SIN. Iniquity is the common characteristic of all mankind: “The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked.” But there is before us a reference to one particular act of sin, which, while proceeding from the depraved heart possessed by the perpetrator in common with others, appears to us in prominent and isolated distinction of enormity.
1. The iniquity of Achan was heinous, on account of its intrinsic nature. It was an act of covetousness. He was beguiled by a greedy and unprincipled desire after the attainment and preservation of wealth.
2. The iniquity of Achan was perpetrated against the Divine command, distinctly expressed and amply known.
3. The iniquity of Achan was heinous on account of its attendant dissimulation and attempted concealment.

[vi]O tempora o mores” is a sentence by Cicero in the fourth book of his second oration against Verres (chapter 25) and First Oration against Catiline. It translates as Oh the times! Oh the customs! (Oh what times! Oh what customs!) It is often printed as O tempora! O mores!, with the interposition of exclamation marks (not present in Classical Latin).  Wikipedia contributors, “O tempora o mores!,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=O_tempora_o_mores!&oldid=554203539 (accessed May 25, 2013).

Absolute Debauched Insolence of the Modern Daughters of the Revolution

This revision of history that posterity is executing is a debauchery and insult to the great women and families of the American Revolution!  To remove any reference to King Jesus and Christianity is an affront to the coalescing Faith that is historic to our Foundations from the Landing at Plymouth through the First Great Awakening that bought the people together to stand against Tyranny.

My mother was a great woman of Faith who inculcated to me the wonders of the Scriptures and love for the Savior.  Because of her and my staying true to my Puritan heritage I received the moniker of “The Last Puritan!”  My first wife was the daughter of Rev. Checkley.  She died at a young age on July 25, 1757.  She had a great Christian walk such that I noted in the Family Bible, “To her husband she was as sincere a friend as she was a faithful wife. Her exact economy in all her relative capacities, her kindred on his side as well as her own admire. She ran her Christian race with remarkable steadiness, and finished in triumph! She left two small children. God grant they may inherit her graces!” I remarried many years later and my second wife was too a woman of Faith and standing before our eternal King Jesus.

There were many other women of the Revolution who’s Christian Faith sustained families while the men were at war.  One such woman is my cousin John’s wife Abigail.  She, like my Elizabeth, held the family and all means together knowing that God’s Providence would have us prevail.

It is incomprehensible as to what you moderns have done to destroy the one and only unifying means by which a people can have Liberty and assurance of personal happiness.  God help you for the intolerance that you have for the Creator God!  May His judgements rest lighter on your heads than the ills that Israel suffered for rejecting Him for He is a jealous God who requires His creation to know that He does act in history through His Providence as He pleases.

How dare you Daughters of the Revolution denounce and disparage the King of the universe who gave this nation Liberty in and through Jesus.  Your shame will find you out.

See the Comment Responses after viewing the Video.

Taxation, Government Pensions, Morality…. Liberty!

ARTICLE SIGNED “VALERIUS POPLICOLA.”

[Boston Gazette, October 5, 1772.]

A Comparison to the Modern United States

The original letter after the “Comparison”

The Modern Day Comparison

Historical reference: The encroachments by the constitutionally established government in England continued to foster indignation among the general Citizenry.  The Colonial Patriots well knew the risk, hardships and blood spilt by their forefathers to secure the original Charters that allowed for self-governance and not allow the changes occurring in the late 1760’s and early 1770’s; that being the central government appointing governors, judges and taxing the colonies in a manner that was not accordance to even the English Constitution.  In comparison internationally, the Founders were also aware that the Parliament was exercising the same regulatory and taxing policies that were imposed on India via the East India Trading Company, which enslaved the people of India, destroyed their commerce and made many in Parliament wealthy.  This was the design for the Colonies, subjugation and pillaging of resources, labor and property while destroying religious liberty and instituting debauchery that then removes overall Liberty.  Remember, Lord North, who administered the government for England, “would never acquiesce in the absurd opinion “that all men are equal.””[1]  What was the moral perspective of that government in England in 1772 and how has the morality of the elected representatives in the present US degenerated to masters over economics for the modern “East India Trading” companies instead of preserving Liberty that fosters innovation, commerce and economy?

In reviewing the 20th and now the early 21st Centuries, it can be seen that the Citizenry lost their perspective as to who is the governing authority.  By the trickery and manipulation of education and media communication, the federal entities have, as did Parliament in my day, usurped the governing authority of We The People.  Instead of every individual participating in self-governance, the “princes” – the career politicians, instituted a centralized government by telling the people what they would do for them instead of the Citizenry telling the elect what to accomplish for the purposes of the States and then the nation in maintaining Principled Constitutional governance.  By this inverse of governance, the Citizenry have allowed elected Tyrants, as de Tocqueville said would happen, to revise the Constitution by amendment, bureaucratic regulation and now through the court decision – unlimited taxation.  Where is the moral character of the politician that would impose slavery on the Citizenry for the sake of the imagined “General Welfare”?  How is this reconciled today even as these ploys were questioned in 1772? Is not the modern Congress and Administrations the plunderers of the Citizenry?

What of modern mega-corporations, the Merchants of the present? As the small and medium businesses in the U.S. suffer the increase of regulations that are in all measures another form of taxation, the large internationalist corporations and global banking conglomerates have explicit relationships with the government to the detriment of private property and therefore Liberty.  The largeness of federal departments, not originated in the Constitution, are constitutors of rules that then increase the indebtedness of posterity by chaining this generation’s ability to be productive to controls over every aspect of life and livelihood.  Not only that, the organizing (unionization) of public employees is forcing local governments and therefore the people of the communities, into bankruptcy from the pensions that have in these modern centuries “multiplying like the Locusts in Egypt” devouring every green dollar of the Citizenry.  How long will We The People tolerate the Bondage of over-bloated government that is not preserving Liberty but continues to burden Citizens, especially the next generation, into slaves of debt?

Are not the Citizenry of these modern centuries calling, writing, and communicating with elected representatives and the administrations for deliverance of over-burdensome government?  Instead of a deaf Royal Ear or Heart, there is now the deaf and cold politicians who are easily corrupted by lobbyists and globalist concerns!  What must this modern population of 300 million now do to have their Remonstrance’s and Supplications heard and the elected adhere to First Principles of a limited Federal Constitution?

Where the very essence of the American Citizenry has Patriotism genetically imbued, the actuality of what Patriotism is happens to be manipulated by those who hold to a philosophy completely contrary to that of foundational truths.  Instead, the elite educators, industrialists, globalists and politicians have cajoled “We the People” into thinking that nationalism and patriotism is not loyalty and that we must become subservient to the greater needs of the global citizenry.  Yet our Loyalty is to our Rights given by our Creator through our Forefathers, bought with their very being and blood, that secured for us the Liberty in a uniting of the States in a Republican form of self-governance through the rule of law, and which is expressly founded on Judea-Christian principles.  We the People, now as in 1772, feel the indignity of excessive Revenues established by those who have “limited” authority to establish them but yet, “extorted from the People in a Manner most Odious, insulting and oppressive.”  And now with Nationalized healthcare, “Is Life, Property and every Thing dear and sacred, to be now submitted to the Decisions of PENSION’D JUDGES?”  Yes, under this Republic, it is We the People that are suppose to be the final arbiters of governance by out suffrage (vote).  Yet As then, even NOW, “To what a State of Infamy, Wretchedness and Misery shall we be reduced if our Judges shall be prevail upon to be thus degraded to Hirelings, and the Body of the People shall suffer their free Constitution to be overturned and ruined.”

WE the PEOPLE, must return to the coalescence that the “First Great Awakening” brought across the various congregations and denominations is such a way that all understood that Our Rights are God given, not man or government given.  To that the plea must be to the Eternal Sovereign, Oh Merciful God, inspire We the People with Wisdom and Fortitude, directing us to Your gracious Ends.  It was reality that the majority of the people had a clear understanding of morality and justice based on Biblical Principles that included the complete context of the Whole Bible, Old and New testaments, Not the humanist/Marxist concept of social justice that is predominant in modern religion.  It is the reality that God is Sovereign and that He takes an Active role in culture, world events, economy and politics that can only return the modern age to the Fundamental Principles of the Nations Founding.

As with the foundation, internationalists were raping the economy, the colonies experienced loss of trade, loss of industry and total economic distress. The 20th century moved from industrialization to the “modern mercantilism” with globalization rendering American core businesses impoverished as seen in 1772. Yet, the True leaders of that day understood that it was not the economy but Liberty that would revive the nation in every manner.  It was also clear that “wherever Tyranny is established, Immorality of every Kind comes in like a Torrent. It is in the Interest of Tyrants to reduce the People to Ignorance and Vice.”  This is being exemplified in every area that has decimated the American Culture: abortion, homosexuality, drugs and cultural degradation from other immoralities.

At this place in the comparison, as in 1772, the original words of Samuel Adams can only hold true and call all the Citizenry to Action!  The truths of the last paragraph in the article stand in completeness now as they did when published in October 5th 1772.

Remember the full affect of these words and Calls To Action:

“We are at this moment upon a precipice.  The next step may be fatal to us. Let us then act like wise Men; calmly look around us and consider what is best to be done. Let us converse together upon this most interesting Subject and open our minds freely to each other. Let it be the topic of conversation in every social Club. Let every Town assemble. Let Associations & Combinations be everywhere set up to consult and recover our just Rights.”

“Candidus”

The Original Letter

    (Emphasis added for moderns to show attention to Mr. Adams words & intents.)

ARTICLE SIGNED “VALERIUS POPLICOLA.”1

[Boston Gazette, October 5, 1772.]

Messieurs EDES & GILL,

“Is there a Prince on Earth, who has power to lay a single Penny upon his subjects, without the Grant and Consent of those who are to pay it, otherwise than by Tyranny and Violence? No Prince can levy it unless through Tyranny and under Penalty of Excommunication. But there are those who are Bruitish enough not to know what they can do or omit in this Affair.

Such is the language of a great and good Historian and Statesman, a Subject of France. Had the English Politicians and Ministers been either half as honest or half as wise as he, they would never have driven the American Revenue without the Grant or Consent of those who pay it, to such a length, as to cause an Alienation of affection which perhaps may not easily if ever be recovered. By this kind of politics, says the worthy Frenchman, Charles the seventh brought a heavy Sin upon his own Soul and upon that of his Successors, and gave his Kingdom a Wound which would continue long to bleed. The British Ministers, possibly, may entertain different Ideas of Morals from those of the French Historian, if indeed they have any such kind of ideas at all. However, the Nation, I fear, will have Occasion to rue the day, when they suffer’d their Politics so far to prevail, as to gain such an Influence in their Parliament as they certainly did in the last, to say nothing of the present. The Impositions upon the French, says Mr. Gordon,2 grew monstrous almost as soon as they grew arbitrary. Charles the seventh, who began them, never rais’d annually more than one hundred and eighty thousand Pounds. His Son Lewis the eleventh almost trebled the Revenue; and since then, all that the Kingdom and People had, even to their Skins, has hardly been thought sufficient for their Kings.” An awakening Caution to Americans! Lest by tamely submitting to be plundered, they encourage their Plunderers to grasp at all they have.

The Merchants of this Continent have passively submitted to the Indignity of a Tribute; and the Landholders, tho’ Sharers in the Indignity, have been perhaps too unconcern’d Spectators of the humiliating Scene. Posterity, who will no doubt revenge their Fathers Wrongs, may also be ashamed, when in the Page of History they are informed of their tame Subjection. Had the Body of this People shown a proper Resentment, at the time when the proud Taskmasters first made their appearance, we should never have seen Pensioners multiplying like the Locusts in Egypt, which devoured every green Thing. I speak with Assurance; because it seldom has happened if ever, that even a small People has been kept long in Bondage, when they have unitedly and perseveringly resolv’d to be Free.

At that critical Period, we hearkened to what we then took to be, the Dictates of sound policy and Prudence. We were led to place a Confidence in those, whose Protection we had a right to claim, and we hoped for Deliverance in dry Remonstrances and humble Supplication. We have petition’d, repeatedly petition’d, and our Petitions have been heard, barely heard! The Grievances of this Continent have no doubt “reached the Royal Ear”; I wish I could see reason to say they had touch’d the Royal Heart. No – They yet remain altogether unredress’d. Such has been the baneful Influence of corrupt and infamous Ministers and Servants of the Crown; that the Complaints of three Millions of loyal Subjects have not yet penetrated the Royal Breast, to move it even to pity.

Have not our humble Petitions, breathing a true Spirit of rational Loyalty, and expressive of a just Sense of those Liberties the Restoration of which we implored, been followed with Grievance upon Grievance, as fast as the cruel Heart and Hand of a most execrable Paricide could invent and fabricate them? I will not at present enumerate Grievances; they are known, sufficiently known, felt and understood. Is it not enough, to have a Governor, an avowed Advocate for ministerial Measures, and a most assiduous Instrument in carrying them on – moddel’d, shaped, controul’d, and directed-totally independant of the people over whom he is commissioned to govern, and yet absolutely dependent upon the Crown – pensioned by those on whom his existence depends, and paid out of a Revenue establish’d by those who have no Authority to establish it, and extorted from the People in a Manner most Odious, insulting and oppressive. Is not this, Indignity enough to be felt by those who have any feeling? Are we still threatned with more? Is Life, Property and every Thing dear and sacred, to be now submitted to the Decisions of PENSION’D JUDGES, holding their places during the pleasure of such a Governor, and a Council perhaps overawed! To what a State of Infamy, Wretchedness and Misery shall we be reduc’d if our Judges shall be prevail’d upon to be thus degraded to Hirelings, and the Body of the People shall suffer their free Constitution to be overturn’d and ruin’d.

Merciful GOD! Inspire Thy People with Wisdom and Fortitude, and direct them to gracious Ends. In this extreme Distress, when the Plan of Slavery seems nearly compleated, O save our Country from impending Ruin – Let not the iron Hand of Tyranny ravish our Laws and seize the Badge of Freedom, nor avow’d Corruption and the murderous Rage of lawless Power be ever seen on the sacred Seat of Justice!

Is it not High Time for the People of this Country explicitly to declare, whether they will be Freemen or Slaves? It is an important Question which ought to be decided. It concerns us more than any Thing in this Life. The Salvation of our Souls is interested in the Event: For wherever Tyranny is establish’d, Immorality of every Kind comes in like a Torrent. It is in the Interest of Tyrants to reduce the People to Ignorance and Vice.

For they cannot live in any Country where Virtue and Knowledge prevail. The Religion and public Liberty of a People are intimately connected; their Interests are interwoven, they cannot subsist separately; and therefore they rise and fall together. For this Reason, it is always observable, that those who are combin’d to destroy the People’s Liberties, practice every Art to poison their Morals. How greatly then does it concern us, at all Events, to put a Stop to the Progress of Tyranny. It is advanced already by far too many Strides. We are at this moment upon a precipice.  The next step may be fatal to us. Let us then act like wise Men; calmly look around us and consider what is best to be done. Let us converse together upon this most interesting Subject and open our minds freely to each other. Let it be the topic of conversation in every social Club. Let every Town assemble. Let Associations & Combinations be everywhere set up to consult and recover our just Rights.

” The Country claims our active Aid.

That let us roam; & where we find a Spark

Of public Virtue, blow it into Flame.”

VALERIUS POPLIC0LA.

 

1. Attributed to Adams by W. V. Wells.

2. Rev. William Gordon, of Roxbury, author of The History of the Rise, Progress, and Establishment, of the Independence of the United States of America.


[1] Great Americans of History, SAMUEL ADAMS, A CHARACTER SKETCH, BY SAMUEL FALLOWS, D.D., LL.D., 1903, pg. 45

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